Historian Yuval Noah Harari

“You don’t study the past for the sake of past, you studied the past in order to understand the present and future better.”


Technology he thinks could change not only our world but our species.The change he describes could will create new winners and losers, and exaggerate the difference between them. In other words, technology change would massively amplify inequality.


We have only one expert witness this week. But he has plenty to say.


In speculation, no one can predict the future, what follows might never happen, but again it might, and that’s why Yuval Noah Harari is worth listening to.


This is the inquiry.


Part one. A nature order.

We have very clear evidence of substantial social inequality going back to stone age.

The inequality Yuval Harari says have been a feature of every human society.

In a place called ***, in today’s Russia, archeologist found graves from 30000 years ago. Hunting society some graves rendering rich, like one 50 years old man, buried with thousands of ivory  bees, little statures, jewelries, things like that.  And some other people just got throwing to a hole with almost nothing.

As human society progressed, inequality deepened.


One key moment is the agricultural revolution, when farming starts. And suddenly, human have a lot of property,



Property creates inequality.


Because it allows land owners to profit the efforts of others. And that inequality can be lasting.


If private owned land can be passed from one generation to the next.

It would be apparent from the early days of farming. Although agriculture seemed like a way to improve the life of everyone. That isn’t how it worked out.

In most cases, all the food surplus are monopolized by a very small elite aristocracies priest of the king. So if you are an empire, your life would be much better than before.

But for the average peasants in ancient Egypt, life was actually much harder than 20000 years earlier hunger-gatherer.

Inequality continues as a fact of life for centuries.

Most country felt inequality and hierarchy as something nature and something even moral.



It was a sin to try to flatten the hierarchy of a society or of a family.

But then you have the 19 and 20 century which is degraded state of masses.


Suddenly, you have situation in which the state and elite needed everybody.

They needed people to work in a massive milk and factories in an industrial revolution.

And fight at rapidly growing armies.


You have those emergencies, massive military machines that rely on immense numbers.

It’s not meals of hundreds and thousands.

It’s meals of millions.


Suddenly government invest heavily building school, providing free education, building swiss system, providing vaccinations,

Not because of they are nice, because they know if we want strong army and strong economy, we need millions to serve in the army and worker in the factories.

And this military and economic necessity gives power to the masses.

 (19世纪,20世纪的) 这种军事和经济上需要使得大众获得了权力。

The worker demands rights and got them.

Inequality becomes one of the main values of human country, almost all the world.

The masses got the power, but they are losing it now.


And they are losing now, partly because of the technology change.

Technology is bring us to turning point in terms of inequality. And we may see the creation of the most unequal society that ever existed in human history.

 技术革新将人类带到了一个新的不平等的转折点, 未来我们可能见证到人类有史以来最极端不平等社会的诞生。

What is this technology changing the shape of work force and military.

Artificial intelligence.