观点 - supporting statements

叔本华认为我们的知识来自于直观感觉对于客体一种直接把握,然后经由抽象思维将它概括为某种概念。因此人们在学习时应该遵循直观知识先于概念知识的顺序。他认为现实中的教育则完全相反,小孩们往往先被灌输许多不曾接触过的概念,只有在他们成年后才能接触到直观知识,这导致了人们的判断力直到很晚才成熟起来。这种观点被他挪用到人际交往中,他认为孩子们只听到那些美好的故事,对真实生活的痛苦却一无所知。这种现象导致了人们随着年纪的增长,知识没有随之有更多的增长,而只是通过直观知识来排除已有的错误概念。

以实证,以通过实际经历形成认识,进而自发形成对事物的运行原理和规律的理解。在认识活动发生前,发生中,不注入任何“成见”,即使是真理级的理论。培养孩子的独立解释能力。

保持对真实世界的关注

Learning By Doing

基于项目的学习 -  PBL Project based learning

 以下文字摘录自Wikipedia

Project-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which it is believed that students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems.[1] Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem.[2] It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote memorization, or teacher-led instruction that simply presents established facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions, problems or scenarios.

PBL是一种以学生为中心的教学法,PBL认为学生通过探索真实世界的挑战和问题,获得对知识的深刻理解。

针对一个复杂,有挑战的问题,学生通过一段时间的调研,来获得关于某个主题的相关知识。

它是一种主动学习,和基于问题的学习。而与之对比的就是传统的基于书本的,老师为中心的,通过展示已有事实和已有知识的教学方法。

 

 

Thomas Markham (2011) describes project-based learning (PBL) thus: "PBL integrates knowing and doing. Students learn knowledge and elements of the core curriculum, but also apply what they know to solve authentic problems and produce results that matter. PBL students take advantage of digital tools to produce high quality, collaborative products. PBL refocuses education on the student, not the curriculum—a shift mandated by the global world, which rewards intangible assets such as drive, passion, creativity, empathy, and resiliency. These cannot be taught out of a textbook, but must be activated through experience."[3] James G. Greeno (2006) has associated project-based learning with the "situated learning" perspective[4] and with the constructivist theories of Jean Piaget. Blumenfeld et al. elaborate on the processes of PBL: "Project-based learning is a comprehensive perspective focused on teaching by engaging students in investigation. Within this framework, students pursue solutions to nontrivial problems by asking and refining questions, debating ideas, making predictions, designing plans and/or experiments, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, communicating their ideas and findings to others, asking new questions, and creating artifacts."[5](Blumenfeld, et al., 1991) The basis of PBL lies in the authenticity or real-life application of the research. Students working as a team are given a "driving question" to respond to or answer, then directed to create an artifact (or artifacts) to present their gained knowledge. Artifacts may include a variety of media such as writings, art, drawings, three-dimensional representations, videos, photography, or technology-based presentations.

Proponents of project-based learning cite numerous benefits to the implementation of its strategies in the classroom – including a greater depth of understanding of concepts, broader knowledge base, improved communication and interpersonal/social skills, enhanced leadership skills, increased creativity, and improved writing skills. Another definition of project-based learning includes a type of instruction, where students work together to solve real-world problems in their schools and communities. Successful problem-solving often requires students to draw on lessons from several disciplines and apply them in a very practical way. The promise of seeing a very real impact becomes the motivation for learning.[6]

John Dewey initially promoted the idea of "learning by doing". In My Pedagogical Creed (1897) Dewey enumerated his beliefs regarding education: "The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child, but is there as a member of the community to select the influences which shall affect the child and to assist him in properly responding to these.......I believe, therefore, in the so-called expressive or constructive activities as the centre of correlation."[7](Dewey, 1897) Educational research has advanced this idea of teaching and learning into a methodology known as "project-based learning". Blumenfeld & Krajcik (2006)[8] cite studies by Marx et al., 2004, Rivet & Krajcki, 2004 and William & Linn, 2003 state that "research has demonstrated that students in project-based learning classrooms get higher scores than students in traditional classroom".


John Dewey in 1902
In Peer Evaluation in Blended Team Project-Based Learning: What Do Students Find Important?, Hye-Jung & Cheolil (2012) describe "social loafing" as a negative aspect of collaborative learning. Social loafing may include insufficient performances by some team members as well as a lowering of expected standards of performance by the group as a whole to maintain congeniality amongst members. These authors said that because teachers tend to grade the finished product only, the social dynamics of the assignment may escape the teacher's notice.[9]

 

相关网站

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project-based_learning

http://www.bie.org/